Although earlier Israelite architecture existed in Egypt, perhaps the best-known Jewish structure from antiquity is the legendary Temple of Solomon, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon to house the Ark of the Covenant. After David conquered Jerusalem in 1004 BC, he resolved to build a great temple; he turned this task over to his son, Solomon, who initiated construction shortly after his rule began. Biblical accounts of construction describe the stone that was quarried from beneath Jerusalem, the timber that was sent from Lebanon, and the vast underground cisterns that brought water to the temple. The Book of Kings attributes the overall plan for the temple to a trade agreement between Hiram of Tyre and Solomon. The building was thought to have a portico at its entrance, elevated by a series of steps and supported by two large columns. Wings on either side gave the temple a tripartite division, with a tall, angled roof and a ridgepole that ran down the middle of the building and allowed for clerestory windows to light the interior. Clearly, the Temple of Solomon blended architectural traditions found across Mesopotamia and down into Egypt. Its stone courtyard recalls ancient Canaanite architecture, while the two large fire pillars that topped the front portico are Phoenician, and the hypostyle hall and clerestory windows reveal Ancient Egyptian influences. Pillaged many times through its history, the "First Temple," as it came to be called, was completely destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC. The Second Temple was begun in 516 BC, later to be destroyed by the Roman Emperor Titus.

Historical Dictionaries of Literature and the Arts. . 2008.

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  • Temple of Solomon — noun any of three successive temples in Jerusalem that served as the primary center for Jewish worship; the first temple contained the Ark of the Covenant and was built by Solomon in the 10th century BC and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC;… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Knights of the Temple of Solomon — the Knights Templars [the Knights Templars] (also the Knights of the Temple of Solomon) a religious and military organization formed in Jerusalem in 1119 to protect ↑pilgrims ( …   Useful english dictionary

  • Knights of the Temple of Solomon — ➡ Knights Templars * * * …   Universalium

  • Knights of the Temple of Solomon — Knights Templar. Holy order of knights pledged to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land. They also helped rich patrons to transfer money between countries. The order became very wealthy by effectively becoming an international financial organization …   Medieval glossary

  • Solomon's Temple — ( he. בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash ), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first temple of the ancient religion of the biblical Israelites in Jerusalem. According to the Bible, it functioned as a religious… …   Wikipedia

  • Temple Mount — הַר הַבַּיִת, Har haBáyith الحرم الشريف, al Haram ash Sharīf, Elevation …   Wikipedia

  • Temple of Jerusalem — • In the Bible the sanctuary of Jerusalem bears the Hebrew name of Bet Yehovah (house of Jehovah) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Temple of Jerusalem     Temple of Jerusalem …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Temple de salomon — Pour les articles homonymes, voir temple. Le Temple de Salomon (héb.: בית המקדש, translit. Beit HaMiqdash, Maison de la sanctification ), également connu sous la dénomination de Premier Temple, fut, selon la Bible, le premier temple juif de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SOLOMON, HANNAH GREENEBAUM — (1858–1942), founder and first president of the National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW). The fourth of ten children born to Sarah Spiegel and Michael Greenebaum, a successful Chicago merchant, she married Henry Solomon in 1879 and the couple had… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Temple (mormonisme) — Temple de l Église de Jésus Christ des saints des derniers jours Temple de Zollikofen, Berne, Suisse, édifié en 1953 Pour les articles homonymes, voir Temple (homonymie). Selon la d …   Wikipédia en Français

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